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What is the second revolution?
The Industrial Revolution 2.0, also known as the 2nd industrial revolution, is a revolution that creates breakthrough advances in industrial production, technology and production methods.
When did the second industrial revolution take place?
This revolution follows on from the First Industrial Revolution, which took place at the end of the American Civil War and the start of World War I from about 1870 to 1914.
The 2nd industrial revolution is associated with the development of powerful powers such as Germany and the United States, helping to promote the 2nd industrial revolution to expand and reach its peak.
Overview of the 2nd industrial revolution
The 2nd Industrial Revolution is a period of rapid industrial development, mainly in the United Kingdom, Germany and the United States, but also in France, the Low Countries, Italy and Japan. It follows on from the First Industrial Revolution that began in England in the late 18th century, then spread throughout Western Europe.
While the First Revolution was driven by the limited use of steam engines, the parts were interchangeable and mass-produced, and were largely water-powered (especially in the United States). , the Second Industrial Revolution was characterized by the construction of large-scale railways, iron and steel production, the widespread use of machinery in production, the increased use of steam power, the use of widely telegraphed, used petroleum, and began electrification. It was also the period when modern organizational methods for operating large-scale enterprises over large areas were met.
The concept was introduced by Patrick Geddes, Cities in Evolution (1910), and used by economists such as Erich Zimmermann (1951), but the use of the term was by David Landes in a 1966 essay and in The Unbound Prometheus (1972) standardized Academic definitions of the term, most strongly promoted by Alfred Chandler (1918–2007). However, some continue to express reservations about its use.
Landes (2003) emphasizes the importance of new technologies, especially internal combustion engines, petroleum, new materials and substances, including alloys and chemicals, electricity and communication technologies (such as electricity). newspapers, telephones and radios).
Vaclav Smil called the period 1867–1914 the "Age of Synergy", during which most of the great inventions were developed because of inventions and innovations based on engineering and science.
Features of the 2nd industrial revolution
The 2nd Industrial Revolution is reflected in many aspects, of which the following features stand out:
Using electric energy and electric motors, to create highly specialized production lines, shifting mechanical production to electric-mechanical production and to the stage of local automation of production. .Technology of iron and steel smelting is increasingly perfected and developed on a large scale. Many new techniques and technologies have been introduced into industrial production, promoting the development of the machine building industry. The electrification of production was accelerated by the transmission of electricity along with the development of electric motors, and the electrification of production was rapid. Other industries were also rapidly developed. development such as oil and gas, chemicals, shipbuilding, automobiles, etc. Creating a premise and basis for the industry to develop more and more.
Achievements of the 2nd industrial revolution
During the 2nd industrial revolution, many great inventions were born promoting many areas of development including:
Factory automation era
While factory automation and productivity were improved by limited use of 2nd Industrial Revolution inventions such as the steam engine, interchangeable parts, assembly lines and mass production, most factories in the late 19th century still used water power.
In the late period, newly developed resources such as steel, oil and gas, and railroads, coupled with the overwhelming new power of electricity, allowed factories to increase production to unprecedented levels. Combined with these, the development of rudimentary computer-controlled machines gave rise to automated production. By the late 1940s, many of the assembly-line factories of the First Industrial Revolution were rapidly evolving into fully automated factories.
Invented in 1856 by Sir Henry Bessemer, the Bessemer process allowed for the mass production of steel. Stronger and cheaper to manufacture, steel soon replaced iron in the construction industry. By saving the cost of building new railroads, steel enabled the rapid expansion of the American rail network. It also makes it possible to build larger ships, skyscrapers, and longer, stronger bridges.
In 1865, the open-hearth process allowed the production of steel cables, rods, plates, gears, and shafts used to make the higher-pressure boilers needed for more powerful factory engines. With World War
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